Dochodzenie roszczeń wynikających z umów o świadczenie usług turystycznych w aspekcie międzynarodowym
- Issue date
Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM
Państwo i Społeczeństwo 2011, nr 1, s. 37-64.
- tourism; international; globalization; tourist services contract; claims; conflict of laws; proper law; competent court
Tourism is nowadays predominantly international. This trend was begun somewhere about the second half of 20th Century and there is not any indications towards change it at the moment. This is not only a consequence of integration of European Union states, including free fl ow of person, but also still progressive globalization process. Therefore, the majority of contracts within the scope of tourist services is cross-border or includes international component. On the background of this type of contracts can arise tourist’s claims against tourist services providers as well as the latter against their subcontractors (hotel owners, tourist guides, carriers, etc.). Taking into account practical aspects in case of coming to existence these kind of claims, there is usually necessary to considered two main points. It has to be determined both law applicable to the contract and competent court. Mentioned above point of view is practical, because in accordance with the views of doctrine, law applicable to the legal relationship shall be considered irrespectively, even if the relationship does not include any foreign components. To consideration both cases mentioned above normally will be appropriate European Union acts applicable directly. In relation to the applicable law it is Regulation (EC) 593/2008 of the European Parliament and Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I). Competent court shall be considered in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (Brussels I). The majority of tourist services contracts is concluded by consumers, what was refl ected in mentioned regulations as well. From the application of those regulations as well as previous acts (especially Brussels Convention) aroused a lot of particular questions and interpretational issues. Both the views of doctrine and jurisprudence, especially judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union are very useful to consideration mentioned issues. This article was dedicated questions arising from the consideration of applicable law and competent court with respect to contracts on tourist services.
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