im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
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Certyfikat z języka angielskiego bez wychodzenia z domu Porównanie egzaminów na poziomie B2 w wersji online
(Fundacja Rozwoju Systemu Edukacji, Wydawnictwo FRSE, 2023)
More and more foreign language certificates can be taken from home. Candidates can choose a particular CEFR level at which they want to test their language proficiency or they can take a multi-level adaptive test. General English (GE), Academic English and some English for Specific Purposes certification examinations are available with the use of the at-home option. Some of the tests are assessed traditionally, by human markers; others are marked by artificial intelligence; others yet make use of what both these assessment techniques offer. In the article, the researcher makes a comparison of two GE tests at the B2 level available online. Pearson English International Certificate CBT and LanguageCert International ESOL are compared with reference to the format of the exam, task types, marking solutions and candidate identification and invigilation measures taken to safeguard exam integrity.
Ewolucja egzaminu maturalnego z języków obcych na przestrzeni sześciu dekad
(Czasopismo Polskiego Towarzystwa Neofilologicznego, 2023)
Matura is an important high-stakes examination present in the Polish education system since the late 18th century. It is taken on completion of high school and is compulsory for those who want to apply for higher education. As a result of an examination reform, in 2005 the exam took on a new form. Since then it has been a professional, external, standardised assessment used for the analysis of school and student performance, and – most importantly – in lieu of university entrance exams. The article looks at the evolution of the foreign language component of the Matura exam over the last six decades: from an internal test prepared by local authorities and by schools, assessed arbitrarily by the test-takers’ teachers, to a professional examination prepared by expert institutions in compliance with quality standards and assessed by trained markers according to elaborate grading criteria. The paper follows the changes occurring in the assessment starting from 1960 up to 2023, when another examination reform brought about new modifications in the foreign language exam.
Ordering what cannot be done is not possible. The Legal Reasoning of Nūr al-Dīn al-Sālimī (1869–1914)
(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022)
Nūr al-Dīn al-Sālimī is generally known as an Omani historian. However, al-Sālimī was an outstanding jurist who formulated over 1,500 maxims (qawāʿid), making him a thinker of great importance for Islamic jurisprudence. In Oman, he is believed to have been the most important Ibāḍī jurist after Ibn Baraka (d. 972). What was his method for deriving legal and ethical maxims? Al-Sālimī asks several questions: (1) what is particular and general, and how can a generalization be derived from specific cases? (2) what factors are necessary for a phenomenon to occur? (3) is every fact unique, and should it be treated separately? We maintain that al-Sālimī’s heuristic was based on induction and consisted of analysing individual facts from fiqh al-ʿibādāt (rules governing the relationship between man and God) in order to formulate generalizations that could be applied in fiqh al-muʿāmalāt (rules governing relations between humans).
The Numerical Scoring Analysis Predecessors
(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2023)
In polygraph history, Cleve Backster’s “numerical scoring chart analysis” is considered as revolutionizing the manner of polygraph charts analysis. Yet, earlier history of chart analysis, as being reviewed in this publication, lead to the conclusion that the “numerical scoring chart analysis” was more evolutionary rather than revolutionary.