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Pozycja10 lat członkowstwa Polski w Unii Europejskiej. Skutki włączenia do jednolitego rynku europejskiego(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2014) Czermińska, MałgorzataThe inclusion of Poland to the common market for goods meant the abolition of customs duties and quantitative restrictions on agricultural products in mutual trade with the countries of the European Union (customs duties on industrial goods have already been abolished by the Europe Agreement) and the application of the Common Customs Tariff on imports from third countries. Freedom of movement of goods after the accession to the EU accounted for Polish entrepreneurs a chance, because the fulfi llment of EU norms and standards means full access to the common market, amounting to more than 500 million inhabitants. Particularly noticeable was the impact of accession on foreign trade, which, thanks to the membership not only gained easier access to the common market, but also new opportunities to increase trade with third countries. Since Polish accession to the EU gradually increased trade in agricultural products as well as their participation in the Polish foreign trade. Emigration of Poles also increased signifi cantly, especially to countries that with eff ect from 1 May 2004 opened their labor markets, namely the United Kingdom, Ireland. In the fi nal evaluation of the benefi ts of joining the common market and free movement of goods, persons, services and capital far outweigh, in both the scale of the economy and at the micro level, the costs associated with membership in the European common market. Pozycja10 lat Polski w NATO(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2009) Szymańska-Klich, Anna"Rok 2009 to dla Sojuszu Północnoatlantyckiego rok jubileuszowy. Ta licząca już 60 lat organizacja zachowała witalność, działa aktywnie, a tworzące ją państwa mają poczucie misji. Żaden z polityków krajów zachodnich nie wyobraża sobie dziś istnienia świata bez NATO. „Na przekór kryzysom, NATO pozostaje najpotężniejszą organizacją obronną na świecie, dysponującą unikatowym potencjałem politycznym i militarnym” – pisał o NATO Radosław Sikorski w przededniu 60. rocznicy jego powstania."(...) Pozycja20 Years of WTO – Effects of Its Activity and Perspectives of Its Functioning in the Context of Proliferation of Regional Agreements in the World Trade(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2016) Majchrowska, ElżbietaThe 20th anniversary of the World Trade Organization (WTO) activity celebrated in 2015 has provoked to the analysis and summary of eff ects of its activity within this period, especially as far as the consequences of the world economic crisis 2008+ are concerned. It is also important in the context of the WTO’s role as the main negotiation forum in the world trade. We may come across opinions that the WTO does not live up to the expectations of the international community, and that the eff ectively carried out process of trade liberalization has not been a match to the current situation in the world market. Beyond a shadow of a doubt, the last decade has not been the most successful period for the WTO and its position is currently much weaker than at the end of the last century. Still, it seems that a gradual creation of an open system of the global trade, based on common rules, having over 160 countries as its members, is a great achievement. Therefore, the contribution to the development of the world economy made by the organization cannot be belittled. The impasse in negotiations lasting for a long time has led to an increase of concluded bilateral and regional agreements, which has weakened the organization’s position. Regional trade agreements may well become the future foundation for bigger associations; there is evidence to suggest that the future trade will be divided into separate, regional blocs. The potential problem may be a shift of priorities and interests of some countries to regional agreements exclusively, since it can prolong the negotiations process and strike at the multilateral trading system. The authentic danger is that RTAs may discredit and weaken the WTO’s central position in the world trade. Pozycja20 Years with the Global War on Terror: A Critical Evaluation and Thoughts on How to Prevent Future Terrorism(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Lindahl, SondreOd ataków z 11 września 2001 r. mija 20 lat. W odpowiedzi Stany Zjednoczone rozpoczęły globalną wojnę z terroryzmem, która zdominowała ostatnie dwie dekady stosunków międzynarodowych. Misje wojskowe w Afganistanie i Iraku, błyskawiczny rozwój programu użycia dronów, powszechne stosowanie tortur i masowa inwigilacja to tylko niektóre z aspektów tej wojny. Globalna wojna z terroryzmem stała się dominującym paradygmatem kontrterroryzmu, a stosowanie przemocy zostało uznane za podstawowy sposób przeciwdziałania i zapobiegania terroryzmowi. Teraz, kiedy mijają dwie dekady od rozpoczęcia tej wojny, zagrożenie terroryzmem jest tak samo aktualne jak w 2001 r. W artykule podsumowano globalną wojnę z terroryzmem i oceniono ją z dwóch perspektyw: pierwszej, która obejmuje empiryczny wynik zapobiegania i zwalczania terroryzmu, oraz drugiej, opartej na teoretycznych założeniach leżących u podstaw paradygmatu tejże wojny. Z oceny wynika, że globalna wojna z terroryzmem zakończyła się porażką w dużej mierze ze względu na teoretyczny i epistemologiczny kryzys walki z terroryzmem. W ostatniej części tekstu zaprezentowano możliwe sposoby naprawy popełnionych błędów, tak aby państwa mogły przyjąć bardziej realistyczną i humanitarną formę walki z terroryzmem. PozycjaA brief history of americanization(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Dębska, MartaFrom introductoin: "The commonly used term “Americanization” is nowadays one of the most misinterpreted and burdened with negative connotations terms there are. It is usually identified by non-Americans with the globalization process, which is, in fact, much broader and older than Americanization. Significant here is the fact that both the expression “America” and the concept of Americanization consist of an inaccuracy themselves. They should be used to refer to two continents and all the countries situated there. In fact, though, they refer just to the United States of America. What is more, the original concept of Americanization, which is still essential for the internal affairs of the US, is commonly forgotten outside the country. This phenomenon therefore needs some explanation and attention."(...) PozycjaA Comparison of Polygraph Examination Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Seven-position Numerical Analysis Scale and the Objective Scoring System (A Study on the Polish Population)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Leśniak, Marek; Zubańska, Magdalena"Different sorts of polygraph examinations have been conducted in Poland over the last sixty years (Krzyścin, 226, 227). It is curious that there are few empirical studies which concern the accuracy of such examinations in relation to the population of Poland. Hundreds of well-documented scientific studies on the accuracy of polygraph examination have been published all over the world. However, most concentrate on the American or Israeli population, so the problem of national differences should be taken into consideration, too. "(...) PozycjaA Field Study of the Backster Zone Comparison Technique's Either-Or Rule and Scoring System Versus Two Other Scoring Systems When Relevant Question Elicits Strong Response(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Matte, James Allan"In March 1974, Cleve Backster authored an article published in Polygraph entitled “Anticlimax Dampening Concept” (Backster 1974). In his article, Backster states “Th e anticlimax dampening concept is formulated on the well-validated psychological principle that a person’s fears, anxieties, and apprehensions are channeled toward the situation which holds greatest immediate threat to his self-preservation or general well-being. "(...) PozycjaA Field Study on the Validity of the Quadri-track Zone Comparison Technique(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2009) Shurany, Tuvia; Stein, Einat; Brand, Eytan"This field study is the third published piece of field research on the validity of the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique. The Quadri-Track ZCT was initially developed in 1977 by James Allan Matte as a result of field experiments designed to resolve the problem of false positives in psychophysiological veracity (PV) examinations using the polygraph. Its theory and methodology were published in the American Polygraph Association’s journal Polygraph in December 1978 and in several textbooks (Matte 1980, 1996, 2000 and 2002)."(...) PozycjaA Half-Century of Experiences with the Polygraph(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Widacki, Jan"I obtained my first expert knowledge of polygraph from a course book of criminalistics by Paweł Horoszowski published Poland in 1958. The author provided his descriptions of the polygraph and examinations with an ideological commentary (among other things like this: “lie-detector is an imperialistic tool of torture”)."(...) PozycjaA History Note A Peep at the “Peak Of Tension (POT)” Test & other “Recognition Tests”(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2018) Amsel, Tuvya T."Recognition Test “Polygraph techniques can be divided into two major categories, knowledge-based tests, also called recognition tests, and deception based tests. Ther ecognition test family of PDD techniques includes; peak of tension tests (known & searching/probing), acquaintance (stimulation) tests and concealed information (Guilty Knowledge Test) tests. They attempt to determine if the examinee has knowledge only available to persons directly involved in an incident of concern.” "(...) PozycjaA Hundred Years of Polygraphy: Some Primary Changes and Related Issues(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Horvath, Frank"The question to be addressed is essentially: “Supposing you were a polygraph examiner in the early years of the fi eld, what are the foremost changes you have witnessed in the last 100 years?”"(...) PozycjaA Little About Memory Traces(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Saldžiūnas, Vitas; Kovalenko, Aleksandras"We spent a long time preparing before joining the discussion about memory traces and their detection during a psychophysiological examination with a polygraph. According to Horvath (2008), this science has two sides. We are still not completely confi dent about the accuracy of our ideas, yet we believe that we have several thoughts that have not been expressed by other authors."(...) PozycjaA new ICAPM approach to multifactor stock pricing using Bootstrap(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2014) Urbański, Stanisław; Leśkow, JacekThe aim of this work is the use of bootstrap methods for assessing of returns and risk of stock described by a small-to-moderate time series data. The paper presents the possibility of using bootstrap for testing the selected ICAPM application. We estimate systematic risk and risk premium components, depending on the fundamental risk factors. We compare bootstrap and classical asymptotic GLS results. The authors analyze quarterly returns of stocks listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange in 1995-2010. The full-sample observations are divided into two separate sub-periods: 1995-2004, the years preceding Poland's accession to the EU, and 2005-2010, the years of Poland's membership in the UE. The components of risk premium change in the second sub-period. Also, we test the multifactor-efficiency (ME) of the generated portfolios. GRS and asymptotic Wald tests reject ME. However, the bootstrapped Wald test does not reject ME for the tested cases. Using the tested ICAPM application to forming ME portfolios makes it possible to offer a number of useful guidelines for portfolio managers. PozycjaA new order of religious freedom(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Neuhaus, Richard John"More than he wanted to be remembered for having been President, Mr. Jefferson wanted to be remembered as the author of the Virginia “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.” In his draft of that bill he wrote: “The opinions of men are not the object of civil government, nor under its jurisdiction.” In a republic of free citizens, every opinion, every prejudice, every aspiration, every moral discernment has access to the public square in which we deliberate the ordering of our life together."(...) PozycjaA new “gathering of Russian lands”: Russia’s return to imperialism(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Jach, AnnaThis article looks at the contemporary rebuilding of the sphere of influence of the Russian Federation, which covers the area of the so-called “near abroad”. The choice of the tactics results from the possible influence of the Russian state in this area. Thus, in addition to using the techniques of the so-called soft power, the catalogue includes primarily those activities that enable Russian decision-makers to manage conflict. The process of ‘claiming Russian land back’, initiated since the collapse of the bipolar system, should be interpreted as a political imperative to return to imperial politics. The instruments for their implementation were both traditionally understood leadership in the world, when the fate of all states and nations was decided by the greatest powers, to which Russia belonged from the first half of the nineteenth century. Another very effective tool for restoring the status quo ante of the ‘Russian empire’ turned out to be the ancient Roman strategy of divide et impera, an approach that has made it possible, from the very beginning, for the Russian Federation to strive to restore its hegemonic position in the territory of the countries that once formed the Soviet Union with it. The inability to impose sovereignty by such a soft influence or to inspire and extinguish potential conflicts has led to the armed assertion of its rights by Russia. Consequently, the policy adopted by Russian decision-makers may not only cause an armed conflict on a large European scale, but also other artificially induced cataclysms, difficult to predict, the consequences of which will have to be handled by the future generations. PozycjaA Polygraph-Assisted Psychological Assessment of Risk of Sexual Harm Posed by a Priest(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2019) Wilcox, Daniel T."This paper provides a case example of how the polygraph can assist in achieving enhanced levels of disclosure when assessing a priest in relation to reported concerns about sexual risk. In the present case, the polygraph is used in combination with other tools employed to produce a comprehensive forensic psychological evaluation of a cleric for safeguarding purposes ( Jack and Wilcox, 2018). Th e author considers that the case study is a helpful medium for describing the utility of the polygraph as an adjunctive tool in risk assessments (Wilcox and Buschman, 2011; Wilcox, Foss, and Donathy, 2005; Wilcox, O’Keefe, and Oliver, 2009)."(...) PozycjaA Realistic Perspective of the Art and Science of Forensic Psychophysiology(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2013) Gordon, Nathan J.; Fleisher, William L."In the early 1960s, Cleve Backster – perhaps the most brilliant polygraph innovator our profession has known – developed major changes in technique structure and introduced many intensely needed psychological concepts to advance our profession. One of the major changes he introduced in technique development was the change in question sequence format from a traditional Relevant – Comparison question sequence, to a structure that introduced placing the Comparison before the Relevant, or a Comparison – Relevant sequence."(...) PozycjaA renaissance in voice analysers as tools for detection of deception?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2009) Pietruszka, Jarosław"The current situation in the world, and especially the threat of terrorism, creates a demand for new technologies that allow observation of human psychophysiological reactions without entering into direct contact with the person and without that person’s knowledge, to evaluate the person’s honesty (deception), intentions, hidden information, and information provided. This has resulted in a revival of interest in devices and techniques for investigating emotional changes in the sound of the human voice (Widacki 2007)."(...) PozycjaA Survey of the Views of Catholic Safeguarding Coordinators about the Inclusion of the Polygraph in Psychological Risk Assessments of Clerics(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Wilcox, Daniel T.; Berry, Rosalind; Grove, EmmaThis paper reflects the views of Catholic safeguarding coordinators (SCs) with regard to the inclusion of the polygraph in forensic psychological risk assessments that they have commissioned. The contents are derived from feedback forms sought of these instructing parties, relating to fifteen priests referred for assessment by SCs from eight different Catholic dioceses in England. The SCs responded to a post-assessment survey including a range of questions concerning their perceptions of the utility of independent, secularly organised, forensic psychological risk assessments undertaken during the period from January 2019 to December 2021. Feedback was obtained in relation to twelve of the clerics, with two SCs having left their positions during the period and as such, not avail able to provide feedback, and one SC not responding to the feedback request. Replies were received from SCs representing seven of the twenty-two Catholic dioceses in England. The overall survey results reflected that a significant majority of respondents positively connoted the value of independent secularly organised forensic psychological risk assessments. However, their expressed views about the polygraph in this context were more varied, thus prompting the authors to produce this separate paper.