The making of national consciousness
Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM
"The question contained in the title of this paper, a question essentially referring to the scope of a person’s freedom within his own group relationships and his authentic opportunity to choose his own identity, is at least as old as the concept of national awareness itself. Both these matters - at least in Europę - date back to the first half of the 19lh century and are closely linked to one another. This is because national awareness - “selected history and the group of symbols connected with it” (Deutch 1953: 389) - is not borne of simple primary extrapolation of ethnic awareness, arising spontaneously, but - on the contrary - it is a thing which must be created by intellectuals and institutions. It is not enough, for this purpose - to bring about the emergence of a separate nation. The very naturę of this process was finely expressed by Massimo d ’Azeglio in his famous declaration in the mid-19th century: “Abbiamo fatto 1’Italia, adesso dobbiamo fare Italiani” (Latham 1970). Similar thoughts are expressed by phrases such as “transformation of the peasants into the French” or, in Polish, “nationalising the peasant”."(...)
Państwo i Społeczeństwo 2004, nr 1, s. 7-26.