Verbal and Non-verbal Symptoms of Deception in the Eyes of Policemen and Psychologists
- Issue date
Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM
European Polygraph 2019, nr 1, s. 25-40.
- Prawo; Psychologia
- detection of deception; verbal symptoms of deception; behavioural symptoms of deception; verbal cues of deception; behavioural cues of deception; interview; interrogation
The objective of the study was to test how selected respondents (psychologists and police offi cers) evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms (cues) of deception listed in literature on the subject. To achieve that, 16 verbal and non-verbal (behavioural) symptoms listed in literature as most typical and most frequently accompanying deceit were ever located by 100 police offi cers and 101 psychologists (n=201). Th eir task was to group the symptoms according to the following categories: “often present”, “rarely present”, and “never present”. Both the groups of respondents claimed that in their work they have to frequently decide whether their interlocutors tell the truth or lie, and are convinced that they are capable of accurate detection of deception through their assessment of verbal and non-verbal (behavioural) symptoms accompanying lie. Th e latter belief is clearly refuted by the results of all known experimental studies. In fact, police offi cers and psychologists agreed that the most diagnostic symptom is “avoidance of eye contact” (143 respondents categorised it as oft en present). “High frequency of eye blinking” was considered least diagnostic of the symptoms, with only 47 respondents claiming that it is frequent, together with “head scratching” with 51 considering it as occurring “often”). Convergence of the respondents’ opinions was high. No signifi cant diff erences between the occupational and age groups, and genders were discovered. Th e results of the study remain coherent with the results of studies by other authors maintaining that the skill of detecting deception in the interlocutor is determined neither by education, nor occupation, nor gender, nor the age of the person performing the detection.
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