Attempts at Detecting Deception Through Evaluation of Non-verbal Symptoms
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Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM
European Polygraph 2010, nr 4, s. 199-211.
"Since the earliest times, humans have undertaken attempts at fi nding an effi cient method that would allow them to detect deception. Th e earliest attempts at detecting lies can be found in the works of Hippocrates and Avicenna, and in the descriptions of mediaeval ordeals (Bardach 1964:335). In ancient times, attempts were made to detect deception both by testing a single selected symptom (for example Avicenna described how he used the pulse to discover whether the person was lying or telling the truth), while other methods were based on the analysis of the entire behaviour of the person whose truthfulness was examined."(...)
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