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PozycjaEvolution of training in minimally invasive surgical techniques(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Potapov, Oleksii; Kosiukhno, Sergii; Kalashnikov, Oleksandr; Todurov, Ivan; Komorowski, Andrzej L.The advent of minimally invasive techniques has resulted in the need for specific training tools. Important differences between open surgery and endoscopic approaches have made it clear that new training models are required to train a proficient surgeon. Over the last four decades several training approaches have been proposed and analyzed in this setting. The main training tools are box trainers, animal models and cadaveric models. In this article the authors summarize tools that are currently available, describe the development of minimally invasive techniques and possible future directions.