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PozycjaA tale of two hemispheres: Norwegian and Australian approaches to national resilience. A comparative analysis(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Grandi, Marco MassimoPaper conducts a comparative analysis of two different national approaches to national resilience in an attempt to identify useful considerations and recommendations for Poland: two models chosen were the Norwegian Total Defence Concept (TDC) and Australia’s National Disaster Response and Resilience approach. They were selected due to their different areas of focus: the Norwegian model is centred on societal mobilisation and its military enablement with the primary purpose of national defence against conventional military and hybrid threats, while the Australian approach is still focused on enhancing national resilience in order to respond to major natural calamities. By examining both models and extrapolating their strengths while noting their vulnerabilities, the basis for a well-rounded national resilience strategy can be identified. While the TDC appears to best suit Poland’s current security challenges, the country would benefit from enhancing its comprehensive local engagement, perhaps through its Territorial Defence Forces. Caution should be exercised with regards to over-committing the Polish military in its support to disaster response at a time when the nation’s eastern flank is once again highly volatile. PozycjaBezpieczeństwo. Teoria i Praktyka 2022, nr 2 (XLVII) Security management mechanisms in the face of contemporary threats(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Chodyński, Andrzej; Sienkiewicz-Małyjurek, Katarzyna; Waśniewski, Krzysztof; Bałamut, Anna; Ziarko, Janusz; Giszterowicz, Agnieszka; Leśniewski, Michał Adam; du Vall, Marta; Majorek, Marta; Jabłoński, Marek; Krüger, Dirk-Ulrich; Kazimierski, Andrzej; Kwieciński, MirosławIntroduction: "The level of security of an organisation depends on a variety of factors, including the ability to identify risks and the implementation of security management, including governance mechanisms. The following criteria are considered in the typology of security threats: 1) objective – this includes political, military, and economic, as well as social and environmental security; 2) sources of threats – described as natural, technical, systemic, demographic, ideological, economic, educational, psychological, cultural, and other; 3) environmental – different environments are taken into account: natural, social, political, economic, scientific, and technological; 4) coverage – from global, through continental and regional, to local; and 5) scale of the threats – from the global level, through the international and state levels, to the administrative unit level."(...) PozycjaBezpieczeństwo. Teoria i Praktyka 2022, nr 3 (XLVIII): The Total Defence 21st century.COM – building a resilient society(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Lasoń, Marcin; Klisz, Maciej; Elak, Leszek; Jones, Derek; Love, J. Bryant; Borkowski, Robert; Reczkowski, Robert; Lis, Andrzej; Czarny, Roman S.; Kubiak, Krzysztof; Michalak, Artur; Bonomi, Nicola; Bergonzini, Stefano; Majchrowska, Elżbieta; Wiśniewska-Paź, Barbara; Polko, Paulina; Mehan, Brian; Fiala, Otto C.; Allers, Edgars; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Fabian, Sandor; Johanson, Terry; Grzela, Joanna; Bērziņš, Jānis; Stringer, Kevin D.; Issa, Alex; Grandi, Marco Massimo; Łazarek, Sławomir; Lipert-Sowa, Monika; Lakomy, Miron; Kuśmirek, Karolina; Marcinko, Marcin; Matyók, Thomas; Zajc, Srečko; Pieczywok, Andrzej; Czornik, Katarzyna; Urych, Ilona; Leśniewski, Zbigniew; Lech, Kamila; Laskowski, Mirosław; Pietrzak, Patrycja; Czernik, Paulina; Halicka, Barbara; Ostolski, Paweł Rafał; Marek, MichałIntroduction: "When we started working on the issue entitled “The Total Defence 21st century. COM – building a resilient society”, we did not know then how topical this issue would become. We were aware of its importance, especially since 2014, which was the beginning of the Russian aggression against Ukraine. However, we did not think that the need to build an effective concept of total/comprehensive defence, and then its implementation, would become so pressing in February 2022. Two of the three general regularities in the history of international relations have also become extremely topical. We are talking about the clash between imperial and polyarchic tendencies, and nations’ desire to express their independence and identity, and as a result, to have their own state. It can be assumed that in order to achieve this goal, as well as for small and medium-sized states to be able to defend themselves against the forces of empires and effectively deter them, they must use the concept of total/comprehensive defence, in its improved, 21st century version."(...) PozycjaCognitive Warfare: what is our actual knowledge and how to build state resilience?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Reczkowski, RobertContemporary national security systems face many challenges related to the changes taking place in the security and operating environments. Cognitive warfare, listed as one of such challenges, is often described as “the struggle for hearts and minds” because in cognitive warfare it is the human mind that becomes the battlefield. The aim of the paper is to identify and explore the key assumptions of cognitive warfare. The research process is focused on the following study questions: (1) What are the characteristics of cognitive warfare? (2) How can cognitive operations build an advantage over a competitor? (3) How to build resilience to cognitive operations? The analysis is based on the data collected with the use of the method of narrative literature review. Moreover, the authors’ participatory observations and lessons from national and international military research projects contributed to understanding and discussing the gist of cognitive warfare. PozycjaCommunicating the resistance(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Fiala, Otto C.The article is an expansion and elaboration of the vital concept of communication or strategic communication, as originally expressed in the Resistance Operating Concept. It examines how a state that chooses to authorise a resistance organisation as part of its national defence plan communicates the existence of that organisation through the four phases: pre-conflict, crisis, occupation, and resumption of sovereignty. It also covers communication directed at specific target audiences (domestic, allied and partner governments and citizenry, and the adversary government and citizenry) during the lifespan of resistance. It broadly examines the actions and messages, or communication intended for each audience in each phase and the intended effects of such communication. Additionally, it focuses on the concept of legitimacy of resistance. This legitimacy is granted by authorising a resistance organisation through an established legal framework and by adherence to the law of armed conflict during wartime. A government establishing such an organisation must also consider the option of a displaced or exiled government in extremis, accounted for under international law, and its effect on communicating and continuing resistance. The article also references concurrent examples of effective communication from Ukraine during the 2022 Russian war on Ukraine. PozycjaEnhancing resilience: the state of play in NATO, European Union, and Poland(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Lipert-Sowa, MonikaThis article presents the current state of play on resilience in NATO, the EU, and Poland. It argues that in the past couple of years, the international security environment has undergone dramatic transitions. On top of existing challenges, new threats (including hybrid) and large-scale crises (i.e., pandemics) are emerging. This complex security situation requires a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach. Building resilience at state, local, and societal level is key. This notion is well understood both in the EU and NATO. Resilience is rooted in the Alliance’s founding Treaty. Article 3 of the Washington Treaty claims that each Ally must first take care of its individual security. Russia’s annexation of Crimea and, subsequently, the COVID-19 pandemic stressed – both in NATO and the EU – the need to be better prepared and able to respond to complex crisis. In the last couple of years, the EU’s approach to resilience has been more inward-looking. From building resilience by the EU, it has shifted to resilience of the EU. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine puts the West to a test, including a resilience test. Opening their homes to ca. 2 million Ukrainian refugees, the Polish people have passed the test and proved, inter alia, that they are able to deal effectively with uncontrolled movement of people. PozycjaResilience and Resistance 2.0: initial lessons of Ukraine and the implications of resilience and resistance efforts to deter and respond to invasion and occupation by revisionist powers(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Jones, Derek; Love, J. BryantCivil-defence resilience capacities focus on man-made threats to national security. While terror attacks like 9/11 drove civil-defence efforts throughout the 2000s, the Russian invasion of portions of Ukraine in 2014 forced nations to build resilience against new threats. These included covert grey-zone and disinformation operations. Additionally, the 2014 events forced nations bordering or within the sphere of influence of revisionist nations to begin to prepare for possible invasion and occupation. Recognition of these threats resulted in two multinational doctrinal concepts that set the stage for what is collectively referred to as resilience and resistance (R&R). Resilience is the efforts by a nation prior to a conflict to build pre-crisis capacity to resist a host of threats, including invasion and occupation, in hopes of deterring threat actions. If deterrence fails, then the efforts transition into resistance to invasion and occupation. The Russian 2022 invasion of Ukraine demonstrated the need for R&R and the strengths and weaknesses of national resistance in action. This event is a strategic R&R inflection point. Nations developing R&R should reflect on and apply the lessons learned from Ukraine’s efforts and ultimately establish R&R 2.0 as an irregular deterrent on par and mutually supporting conventional and nuclear deterrents. PozycjaSmart City w budowaniu odporności miast na zagrożenia(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Sienkiewicz-Małyjurek, KatarzynaZapewnienie odporności na ryzyko wystąpienia zagrożeń będących konsekwencją rozwoju cywilizacyjnego jest współcześnie jednym z podstawowych problemów zarządzania bezpieczeństwem publicznym. Problematyka ta szczególnie widoczna jest w ośrodkach miejskich, wśród których znaczna część stanowi obszary wysokiego ryzyka. Rodzi to potrzebę budowy odporności miast na zagrożenia, która odnosi się do metod i technik wykorzystywanych w działaniach prewencyjnych, a także do strategii prowadzenia przedsięwzięć w fazie reagowania. W tym zakresie coraz większego znaczenia nabiera koncepcja Smart City. Pozwala ona na sukcesywne rozwiązywanie problemów związanych z funkcjonowaniem miast i regionów poprzez wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technologii, współpracę międzyorganizacyjną w realizacji zadań publicznych oraz tworzenie sieci relacji między organizacjami a ich działaniami. Jednak jest to nowa koncepcja, która wymaga usystematyzowania dotychczasowych osiągnięć, podejść i kierunków jej rozwoju. Na tej podstawie za cel artykułu przyjęto zidentyfikowanie aktualnych kierunków badań i potrzeb w zakresie zastosowania koncepcji Smart City w budowaniu odporności miast na zagrożenia. Cel osiągnięto w wyniku systematycznego przeglądu literatury. W rezultacie wyznaczono trzy podstawowe obszary badawcze w zakresie zastosowania Smart City w analizowanym obszarze. Stwierdzono ponadto, że w zastosowaniu tej koncepcji w budowaniu odporności miast na zagrożenia, obok wdrożenia i wykorzystania rozwiązań technologicznych, istnieje potrzeba zwrócenia większej uwagi na czynniki społeczne. PozycjaThe legal status of civil defence organisation during armed conflict and belligerent occupation(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Marcinko, MarcinCivil defence, whose main objective is the protection of the civilian population, is a component of the concept of society’s resilience, but in the provisions of international humanitarian law (regulating the conduct of parties fighting in an armed conflict), it is limited to the protection of civil defence organisations (such as a fire brigade) performing strictly defined humanitarian tasks, requiring thorough preparation and securing of appropriate resources. The state-parties to the conflict shall respect and protect civil defence organisations and personnel and military units designated to serve as civil defence on a permanent basis. Also, in the case of belligerent occupation, the occupying state is obliged to enable the implementation of these tasks by civil defence organisations of the occupied territory; in addition, the cases where it is permissible to seize buildings and equipment belonging to these organisations have been seriously limited. Thus, well-organised, efficient, and effective civil defence formations are an important element of the state’s defence system, which serves the population in danger, and its efficient and effective functioning can contribute significantly to building and strengthening the resilience of society in the conditions of armed conflict and belligerent occupation. PozycjaThe resilience theorem as a new way to conceptualise security and defence(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Borkowski, RobertResilience is a relatively new conceptual category used when considering security and defence. It means adaptability, resistance to threats, flexibility of response, and the ability to regenerate. The term resilience has been present in English for a long time, as evidenced by the presence of this term in old dictionaries of the English language. Originally, its meaning related to medicine and mechanics, a bit later – to human psychology, and today it has extended to the issues of resilience of cities, societies, and entire countries. An attempt at applying this new conceptualisation is associated with the recognition that the current security paradigm is losing its relevance in a rapidly changing and complex world. The changing scale of threats makes it necessary to search for new theoretical foundations for creating an effective defence policy. However, the theory of resilience has not yet been fully formulated, at best, only its theorem has. The aim of this article is to present the significance of this conceptual category, to indicate the theoretical concepts underlying this conceptualisation in social sciences, and to reflect on the value of the concept of resilience for security and defence. PozycjaUsing ambidexterity in the ecological security management of organisations(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Chodyński, AndrzejThe main currents of research on ambidexterity in the context of organisational security with emphasis on the role of network links are indicated. The hypothesis that ambidexterity, using governance mechanisms, can support the functioning of an organisation in both strategic and operational perspectives in the face of unexpected extreme turbulence in the environment related to the environmental factor is substantiated. This implies, on the one hand, the need to prepare a strategy of resistance and resilience and, on the other hand, a readiness for ad hoc behaviour. Ambidexterity was considered in the context of cooperation with partners, with a view to accessing certain own and partners’ resources in a crisis situation. In an ecological context, the influence of ambidexterity on the continuous improvement of the organisation’s performance was discussed, paying attention to the simultaneous efforts for radical change based on innovative actions, starting from the assumption of sustainability, in cooperation with stakeholders. A review of the concept of ambidexterity in relation to the issue of organisational security was conducted based on a critical analysis of the literature on the subject. A research gap related to this area was identified. The aim of the study was to identify opportunities for the use of ambidexterity in organisations in emergency situations. PozycjaWhat role can Stability Policing play in total defence and building resilience?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Bonomi, Nicola; Bergonzini, StefanoThreats to peace, stability and human rights of states and civil societies are increasingly of a non-military nature and fending them off requires adopting innovative approaches. These encompass, first and foremost, veering from the strictly military- and security-centred focus applied hitherto and looking at more comprehensive and holistic responses. Furthermore, they seek to include all stakeholders within a state, including its military, the civil apparatus, the civilian populace, and private enterprises in a common defensive effort, namely the concept of total defence. Creating and improving positive interaction amongst relevant stakeholders and increasing their chances of successfully absorbing and surviving external shocks and attacks showcases another significant notion, namely resilience, not only in its acceptation within the Alliance, but in a wider understanding of the term. Stability Policing as a spearheading concept expanding the reach of NATO into the policing remit and as a cutting-edge deployable military capability is defined as suggesting, describing, and highlighting possible roles and contributions to both endeavours. Stability Policing offers innovative avenues of approach and a policing mindset by applying relevant police-related ways and means, and its “blue lens”, and thus contributes to achieving the overarching goal of identifying, deterring, stopping, and countering threats, including those of a hybrid nature and in grey zones, also below the threshold of war.