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PozycjaA Comparison of Polygraph Examination Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Seven-position Numerical Analysis Scale and the Objective Scoring System (A Study on the Polish Population)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Leśniak, Marek; Zubańska, Magdalena"Different sorts of polygraph examinations have been conducted in Poland over the last sixty years (Krzyścin, 226, 227). It is curious that there are few empirical studies which concern the accuracy of such examinations in relation to the population of Poland. Hundreds of well-documented scientific studies on the accuracy of polygraph examination have been published all over the world. However, most concentrate on the American or Israeli population, so the problem of national differences should be taken into consideration, too. "(...) PozycjaA Field Study of the Backster Zone Comparison Technique's Either-Or Rule and Scoring System Versus Two Other Scoring Systems When Relevant Question Elicits Strong Response(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Matte, James Allan"In March 1974, Cleve Backster authored an article published in Polygraph entitled “Anticlimax Dampening Concept” (Backster 1974). In his article, Backster states “Th e anticlimax dampening concept is formulated on the well-validated psychological principle that a person’s fears, anxieties, and apprehensions are channeled toward the situation which holds greatest immediate threat to his self-preservation or general well-being. "(...) PozycjaA Little About Memory Traces(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Saldžiūnas, Vitas; Kovalenko, Aleksandras"We spent a long time preparing before joining the discussion about memory traces and their detection during a psychophysiological examination with a polygraph. According to Horvath (2008), this science has two sides. We are still not completely confi dent about the accuracy of our ideas, yet we believe that we have several thoughts that have not been expressed by other authors."(...) PozycjaA Realistic Perspective of the Art and Science of Forensic Psychophysiology(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2013) Gordon, Nathan J.; Fleisher, William L."In the early 1960s, Cleve Backster – perhaps the most brilliant polygraph innovator our profession has known – developed major changes in technique structure and introduced many intensely needed psychological concepts to advance our profession. One of the major changes he introduced in technique development was the change in question sequence format from a traditional Relevant – Comparison question sequence, to a structure that introduced placing the Comparison before the Relevant, or a Comparison – Relevant sequence."(...) PozycjaAlibi Check by Polygraph Examination(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2012) Saldžiūnas, Vitas; Kovalenko, Aleksandras"When we provided the fi rst conception of the Event knowledge test (EKT) (Saldžiūnas & Kovalenko, 2008a,b,c). it was not yet systematized. In later works, we added (Saldžiūnas & Kovalenka, 2012) that one of the main features of the diff erence between the EKT and CIT (Concealed Information Test) was that the questions-answers for tests were formed not according to the circumstances known about the criminal incident, but according to the versions."(...) PozycjaAlibi Testing Potential in Polygraphic Examination(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2008) Lewandowski, Edward; Lewandowski, Łukasz"Elliot Aronson’s Social Psychology reads: “It would be good if there were an infallible examination to establish whether someone is lying […]. The police could ascertain whether the suspect’s claim that while the crime was being committed he was eating a sandwich at home is true.” The question of reliability of the alibi of those suspected of committing a crime is frequently a problem for officers of law enforcement and prosecution. In many cases, having that fact confirmed by the relatives of the suspect is not convincing for the officer. Polygraph examination could help to determine the actual whereabouts of a given person when the crime was being committed."(...) PozycjaAn attempt to falsify the results of a polygraph test through the implementation of false memory: a case study(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2007) Konieczny, Jerzy"The remains of a level crossing attendant that had been working alone at night were found in the crossing service building at the intersection a railroad right-of-way and a highway.. The post-mortem and the investigation of the scene indicated that the woman suffered several knife wounds. It was also established that the perpetrator fled the scene after having destroyed the crossing’s telephone and disabling the signal lamp located in front of the building."(...) PozycjaAnalysis of Facial Skin Temperature Changes in Acquaintance Comparison Question Test(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Pilski, JarosławFrom introduction: "Polygraph instruments have been used in criminal investigations for a long time now, and several types of tests using the polygraph have been developed. One such test is called the Acquaintance Comparison Question Test (ACQT) , which is extremely effective when traditional polygraph measures are used. However, the devices used to record these measures still resemble the fi rst models from 20 years ago [2, 3] and most often include metal electrodes attached to the fingers, pneumatic tubes surrounding the thoracic and abdominal areas, and a pneumatic blood pressure cuff attached to the upper arm overlying the brachial artery. Th ese sensors require time to attach, and the examinee can feel certain discomfort when the blood pressure cuff is infl ated for more than approximately fi ve minutes. Additionally, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) measures of the orienting response rely on such cognitive phenomena as memory updating rather than emotional responses to the test questions [4–7]. Many believe that increases in polygraph accuracy might be possible if questions could be determined. Th is would be useful not only in the ACQT format, but in other polygraph test formats as well. Research has documented a link between behavioral reactions and the expression of specific emotions [8–11]. Th e cited studies typically involve detailed measures of facial muscles as specifi c emotions are invoked. One technology that shows promise in overcoming some of the limitations of traditional polygraph measurements is thermography."(...) PozycjaAttempts at Detecting Deception Through Evaluation of Non-verbal Symptoms(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Widacki, Michał"Since the earliest times, humans have undertaken attempts at fi nding an effi cient method that would allow them to detect deception. Th e earliest attempts at detecting lies can be found in the works of Hippocrates and Avicenna, and in the descriptions of mediaeval ordeals (Bardach 1964:335). In ancient times, attempts were made to detect deception both by testing a single selected symptom (for example Avicenna described how he used the pulse to discover whether the person was lying or telling the truth), while other methods were based on the analysis of the entire behaviour of the person whose truthfulness was examined."(...) PozycjaConditions and Requirements of Polygraph Examination(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2012) Budaházi, Árpád"The establishment of the honesty or dishonesty of a person giving testimony inflicts constant dilemmas on authorities participating in criminal procedures. The concerned authorities must continuously examine the trustworthiness of the accused and the witnesses so that the court shall not have to face the possibility, before making their decision, that some of the available evidence is “poor” or “fake” (Tremmel, 2006) as the testimonies given by the accused and the witness failed to stand up to examination. It is necessary to check the credibility of testimonies not only in the judicial procedure but also during the investigation phase, according to the recommendations of criminal tactics."(...) PozycjaConfirmed Mental Countermeasure Case in Costa Rica(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Shurany, Tuvia"There are mixed opinions in our profession about whether papers concerning deliberate distortions and countermeasures should be published. Whether they better educate those wishing to employ them, or help educate the seekers of truth. Th is paper is written of a confi rmed examination where countermeasures were employed to assist the latter."(...) PozycjaEffect of Habituation to Least Threatening Zone Questions of the Most Threatening Zone Comparison Questions in Psychophysiological Veracity Examinations(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Matte, James Allan"During the past 39 years of conducting psychophysiological veracity (PV) examinations, this author observed a phenomenon wherein the responsivity of the confi rmed deceptive and truthful examinees remained constant and often increased with each chart collected on the relevant questions if deceptive or the control questions if truthful. Th is author suspected that the reason for this occurrence was due to the truthful examinee’s habituation to the relevant questions and the deceptive examinee’s habituation to the control questions, as a result of their psychological set being focused on the tests questions having the greatest threat to their security."(...) PozycjaEffect of the Stimulation Test Administered Before and After the First Relevant Chart of the Control Question Test(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2012) Matte, James Allan"During the pretest interview of a psychophysiological veracity (PV) examination, every effort is made to allay any fears the innocent examinee may have regarding the accuracy of the results of the examination, by explaining the scientific principles involved in the test, the sophistication of the polygraph instrument, and the complete objectivity of chart analysis through a numerical quantifi cation system or computer algorithm. However, the best pretest interview by the most competent polygraphist may sometimes fail to convince an examinee of the accuracy and reliability of the PV examination."(...) PozycjaEfficiency Formula for Polygraph Examination(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Saldžiūnas, Vitas; Kovalenko, Aleksandras"In all known handbooks of psychophysiological polygraph examinations (Abrams, 1989; Konieczny, 2009; Matte, 1997), there is little information on when the polygraph examiner should perform a polygraph examination and when it is better not to carry out an examination."(...) PozycjaElectrodermal Response Ratios: Scoring Against the Stronger of Two Comparison Questions in Search of an Optimal Minimum Threshold(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Krapohl, Donald J.Previously, Krapohl (2020) evaluated the Bigger-Is-Better Rule (BIBR) on the polygraph electrodermal channel to assess whether there was a best minimum ratio between response sizes for assigning a score. Performance peaked at a minimum ratio between 10% and 20%. The ratios had been calculated by comparing the electrodermal responses for each relevant question against those of the immediately preceding comparison question. The analysis did not consider whether the same optimal ratio would be found if the relevant question electrodermal responses are compared to those of the stronger of two adjacent comparison questions. To investigate we analyzed responses from an independent sample of 255 laboratory cases. The data from those cases found the highest correlation between scores and ground truth occurred when the minimum difference between two electrodermal responses was 30%.