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PozycjaEvidence Based Practice Integration into Polygraph Practice: A suggested paradigm(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Amsel, Tuvya T.; Ginton, AvitalThe philosophy of evidence-based practice advocates professionals to rely on scientific evidence. Although the idea seems obvious, misuse of the philosophy raised controversy, which created confusion and misunderstanding of the concept. Yet, since it was introduced in the nineties to the medical community and despite the controversy, it gained more and more disciples and was embraced by nonmedical practitioners, including the polygraph profession. In the last decades, the polygraph community has gradually abandoned the intuitive-based polygraph practice that relies on less scientifically rooted subjective procedures and advanced toward evidence-based polygraph practice. This paper describes the evidence-based practice in general and details the practical aspects of evidence-based polygraph practice in particular, along with discussing the limitations of the current scientific research. It questions the current bone-tone trend to implement an extreme Evidence-Based approach into the polygraph practice, suggesting the practitioner to avoid a rigid “one size fit all” standardized protocols which are advocated as a must on the way to earn scientifi c recognition, whereas, in fact, it is the unfortunate outcome of lack of diff erential research data. As in the medical field, in-where the Evidence-Based practice managed to incorporate the clinical experience of experts with the hard research evidence and has not disregarded their valuable knowledge and experience, the present article calls for adopting this integrative approach in the polygraph field too and adjust the protocols to the specific circumstances of the case and the examinee in a “tailor-made” mode, which is based on existing data and flexible thinking wherever there is no data to rely on, as was suggested under the concept of “Adaptive-Polygraphy” (Ginton, 2013). PozycjaFrom a Rigid Cover to an Elastic One Via a Blanket too Short. An Adaptive Polygraph Approach(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Ginton, AvitalThe Polygraph test or the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception is a short blanket that cannot cover everything without paying in errors; a clever polygraph examiner and a wise usage of polygraph must make a choice whether to cover the feet or the head with this short blanket and conduct the examination accordingly. But a wiser approach should look to turn the short blanket into an elastic cover that can deal differently with different people and different situations. Following two-three decades of blessed efforts to develop strict standardization in the field, the time has come to start steering the polygraph ship back to greater flexibility and creativity, this time relying on scientific thinking and knowledge. Thus, contrary to the existing trend in the field, I call to drive modern Polygraphy towards developing a scientifically based approach that follows the motto of “Different Things to Different People and Different Situations”. In other words, I call for developing an adaptive approach or Adaptive Polygraphy. The Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) Theory (Ginton, 2009) is presented here as a major theoretical and practical carrier for evolving and shaping the Adaptive Polygraphy. The article analyzes the current situation and draws some lines to follow in developing an Adaptive Polygraphy approach. PozycjaPolygraph: The Use of Polygraphy in the Assessment and Treatment of Sex Off enders in the UK(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Wilcox, Daniel T.; Collins, Nikki"A polygraph instrument collects physiological data from at least three systems within the human body. They generally include respiration, sweat gland activity, and blood pressure measurement. A typical polygraph examination will include a period referred to as a pre-test interview, a chart collection phase and a test data analysis phase. It works on the assumption that almost all people have a fear response associated with lying, particularly about matters of signifi cant personal importance to them. However, in fairness, this assumption is not subject to universal agreement and there is no consensus as to the underlying basis upon which the polygraph examination can be employed to such consistently positive eff ect (Wilcox, 2013). As such, lying is thought to produce a natural stress reaction (Wilcox, 2000) activating the autonomic nervous system, a part of the central nervous system that is largely outside of conscious, volitional control."(...) PozycjaThe Effectiveness of fMRI Data when Combined with Polygraph Data(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2018) Gordon, Nathan J.; Mohamed, Feroze B.; Platek, Steven M.; Ahmad, Harris; Williams, Michael; Faro, Scott H.The Integrated Zone Comparison Technique (IZCT) was utilized with computerized polygraph instrumentation and the Academy for Scientific Investigative Training’s Horizontal Scoring System ASIT PolySuite algorithm, as part of a blind study in the detection of deception. This paper represents a synergy analysis of combining fMRI only deception data with each of the three individual physiological parameters that are used in polygraph. They include the electro-dermal response (EDR), pneumo, and cardio measurements. In addition, we compared the detection accuracy analysis using each single parameter by itself. Th e fMRI score and each individual polygraph parameter score on individual subjects were averaged to establish an overall score. PozycjaThe Use of the Polygraph with Sex Offenders in the UK(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2012) Wilcox, Daniel T.; Gray, RosieFrom introduction: "For more than ten years the polygraph has been the subject of research and increased application with sex off enders in the United Kingdom. However, it is not without its detractors (Ben-Shakhar, 2008; Lykken, 1998; Meijer, Verschuere, Merckelbach and Crombez, 2008). Indeed, Craig (2011), described it as “a lightning rod for controversy” (p. 59), principally because of ongoing disputes with regard to its scientifi c acceptability (Grubin, 2008), its accuracy/ validity (Madsen, 2009) and its ethical standing (Vess, 2010)."(...) PozycjaThoughts on the Inconclusive Zone in Comparison Question Test (CQT)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Ginton, AvitalThe Inconclusive Zone, in one form or another, is an integral part of almost any data analysis method of CQT. It represents the existence of built-in uncertainties in the test and indicates how the test, in general, and the examiners, in particular, bear this limitation in practice. Unfortunately, it is so common that most examiners tend not to spend too much time and attention wondering about its meaning. The following are some reflections on the concept of an Inconclusive Zone, and its actual use, including some resulting recommendations. That includes internal aspects of the test, such as the relation between the extent of using multiple comparison points between relevant and comparison questions and the optimal Inconclusive Zone size. External aspects affecting the Inconclusive Zone’s size and shape are also stressed when looking at the CQT through a prism of aiding decision-making rather than a mere means to sort truth from lies. PozycjaTrying an Accused Serial Sexual Harasser for Libel in a US Civil Court(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2020) Shuster, Jonathan J.; Handler, MarkThe goal of this article is to provide a class of MeToo# victims of a high-profile serial sexual harasser with a non-invasive method for civil action, when the accused publicly dismisses the victims’ claims as lies. When these libelous claims do occur, the victims can be assembled into a class-action libel/defamation case, which in most US states must be mounted within two years of the claim. Because under current civil methods, the plaintiffs would be subject to intense cross-examination in a civil jury trial, class-action lawsuits with small numbers of plaintiffs (e.g. 5–8) have proven impossible to conduct. This article provides a blueprint to create a collaboration amongst the victims, credibility-assessment (lie-detector) experts, statisticians, and MeToo# attorneys to litigate libel suits, which will likely produce out-of-court settlements. Once the first case is successfully completed, precedent will be set to bring other perpetrators to justice, and act as a deterrent to future exploitation. The evidentiary basis would be based on testing the null hypothesis that all plaintiffs are lying, to compare the inferred lying rates of the plaintiffs to similar population controls, who would be known liars, to a “Yes” answer to “Did X sexually harass you?”