Przeglądaj wg Słowo kluczowe "CQT"
Teraz wyświetlane 1 - 11 z 11
Wyników na stronę
PozycjaA Theoretical Analysis of the Direct Lie Question (DLC)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2015) Gordon, Nathan J."The Directed Lie Comparison (DLC) question is being used in the field increasingly as some researchers have continuously suggested its use in a pedantic manner with statistical smoke and mirrors to replace the traditional Probable Lie Comparison (PLC) question. The DLC is employed by basically informing the examinee that all people have done these things in their lifetime (lied, broke a traffi c law, etc.) however, so the examiner can see exactly what happens physiologically when they lie they are to answer these questions “No.”"(...) PozycjaEssentials of the Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) Strength: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Comparison Question Test (CQT)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2019) Ginton, AvitalThe essentials of the Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) theoretical framework for explaining the Comparison Question Test (CQT) (Ginton, 2009), is presented here in a detailed outline format. It is based on the notion that examinees who lie on the test in the relevant questions are attached psychologically to the relevant issue in a diff erent way than the truth-tellers. An essential diff erence is the strength by which the suspect’s attention is directed, focused, and bound to the relevant issue. Th ese aspects of attention in the context of polygraph examinations are coined, Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) Strength. Th e RIG strength is assumed to distribute diff erently between the liars and the truth-tellers. Th ere is reason to believe that liars hold a stronger RIG compared to the truthful subjects, and eventually, that affects the differential reactivity to the relevant vs. comparison questions. Th e following describes the rationale behind the RIG concept, some supporting data, and the theoretical as well as practical implications. PozycjaEvidence Based Practice Integration into Polygraph Practice: A suggested paradigm(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Amsel, Tuvya T.; Ginton, AvitalThe philosophy of evidence-based practice advocates professionals to rely on scientific evidence. Although the idea seems obvious, misuse of the philosophy raised controversy, which created confusion and misunderstanding of the concept. Yet, since it was introduced in the nineties to the medical community and despite the controversy, it gained more and more disciples and was embraced by nonmedical practitioners, including the polygraph profession. In the last decades, the polygraph community has gradually abandoned the intuitive-based polygraph practice that relies on less scientifically rooted subjective procedures and advanced toward evidence-based polygraph practice. This paper describes the evidence-based practice in general and details the practical aspects of evidence-based polygraph practice in particular, along with discussing the limitations of the current scientific research. It questions the current bone-tone trend to implement an extreme Evidence-Based approach into the polygraph practice, suggesting the practitioner to avoid a rigid “one size fit all” standardized protocols which are advocated as a must on the way to earn scientifi c recognition, whereas, in fact, it is the unfortunate outcome of lack of diff erential research data. As in the medical field, in-where the Evidence-Based practice managed to incorporate the clinical experience of experts with the hard research evidence and has not disregarded their valuable knowledge and experience, the present article calls for adopting this integrative approach in the polygraph field too and adjust the protocols to the specific circumstances of the case and the examinee in a “tailor-made” mode, which is based on existing data and flexible thinking wherever there is no data to rely on, as was suggested under the concept of “Adaptive-Polygraphy” (Ginton, 2013). PozycjaFrom a Rigid Cover to an Elastic One Via a Blanket too Short. An Adaptive Polygraph Approach(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2021) Ginton, AvitalThe Polygraph test or the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception is a short blanket that cannot cover everything without paying in errors; a clever polygraph examiner and a wise usage of polygraph must make a choice whether to cover the feet or the head with this short blanket and conduct the examination accordingly. But a wiser approach should look to turn the short blanket into an elastic cover that can deal differently with different people and different situations. Following two-three decades of blessed efforts to develop strict standardization in the field, the time has come to start steering the polygraph ship back to greater flexibility and creativity, this time relying on scientific thinking and knowledge. Thus, contrary to the existing trend in the field, I call to drive modern Polygraphy towards developing a scientifically based approach that follows the motto of “Different Things to Different People and Different Situations”. In other words, I call for developing an adaptive approach or Adaptive Polygraphy. The Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) Theory (Ginton, 2009) is presented here as a major theoretical and practical carrier for evolving and shaping the Adaptive Polygraphy. The article analyzes the current situation and draws some lines to follow in developing an Adaptive Polygraphy approach. PozycjaIndividual Differences in Comparison Question Anxiety(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2008) Phillips, Michelle C.; Vendemia, Jennifer M.C."The comparison question polygraph test (CQT) is a well-known technique for the detection of deception in legal and criminal settings (Raskin et al., 1989). According to Raskin and colleagues, the CQT was developed to address the limitations of the relevant-irrelevant (R-I) test, which uses only two types of questions, relevant and neutral. In the R-I test, neutral questions do not have any salience (i.e. are not relevant) for the innocent examinee. In this sense, they function as a ttcontrol" condition."(...) PozycjaPsychologiczne podstawy efektywności badań poligraficznych - nowe podejście w XXI w.(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2012) Gołaszewski, MarcinThe article compares the traditional concepts, dominant until recently and explaining the essence of polygraph examination and its effectiveness with a relatively new approach based on more solid scientific foundations. The so-called “differential salience” concept of test stimuli is based on the assumption that the subject may find a given stimulus more significant than others for a variety of reasons: for example, because he or she considers it threatening, shocking or simply familiar. The above is conditioned by a number of psychological processes related not only to emotions but also to the processes involved in focusing, memory, and behavioural conditioning. Thus, the idea is not only to detect the physiological fear of being revealed (emotional traces) or to seek traces of memory. Nor is there a simple standard of deception (lie). The current state of research in psychophysiology of the human makes it possible to explain what the phenomenon of efficiency of polygraph testing results from. PozycjaThoughts on the Inconclusive Zone in Comparison Question Test (CQT)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Ginton, AvitalThe Inconclusive Zone, in one form or another, is an integral part of almost any data analysis method of CQT. It represents the existence of built-in uncertainties in the test and indicates how the test, in general, and the examiners, in particular, bear this limitation in practice. Unfortunately, it is so common that most examiners tend not to spend too much time and attention wondering about its meaning. The following are some reflections on the concept of an Inconclusive Zone, and its actual use, including some resulting recommendations. That includes internal aspects of the test, such as the relation between the extent of using multiple comparison points between relevant and comparison questions and the optimal Inconclusive Zone size. External aspects affecting the Inconclusive Zone’s size and shape are also stressed when looking at the CQT through a prism of aiding decision-making rather than a mere means to sort truth from lies. PozycjaWhen should the Polygraph Stimulation Number Test be Performed?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2009) Widacki, Jan"In his recently published monograph Badania poligraficzne – podręcznik dla zawodowców, literally “Polygraph testing – a handbook for professionals”, Jerzy Konieczny recommends performing the stimulation number test as the first in the series, opening the examination (Konieczny 2009, 151, 155). Besides him, a few other authors recommend that this test begins the examination. In Truth and Deception, a work that has become a classic, J. Reid and F. Inbau (1976, 38) recommend using the stimulation test second, after conducting the first test of control questions, and before its repetition."(...)