Academic Malpractice in Tests and Exams from an International Perspective
- Issue date
Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika
Przegląd Badań Edukacyjnych Educational Studies Review 2022, nr 36 1/2022, s. 153-175
- Edukacja; Pedagogika
- academic integrity; academic dishonesty; cheating; exams; testing
Cheating in exams and other forms of academic dishonesty have been reported to be a serious issue in many countries. A lot of research has been conducted on the topic, but it focuses mainly on the US context. Studies pertaining to the problem in other countries are rather scarce. The existing research considers the issue from different perspectives. Some studies concentrate on the scope of the problem in a particular country, others choose to research individual and contextual factors in cheating, or students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards exam malpractice. The surveys are often restricted to selected nationalities, the questions are limited to the frequency of cheating and they rarely include reference to the methods used. In reaction to the rarity of research on cheating methods among students from different cultural backgrounds, an international questionnaire survey was undertaken. Its aim, among others, was to answer two research questions: (1) What methods do students use to cheat in tests and exams? (2) Are there significant cultural differences in the way students cheat in tests and exams? Students from France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, the USA and other countries were asked in an online questionnaire about the methods they have used to cheat in tests and exams. The results of the survey conducted on 1309 students show that there are similarities but also differences between the cultures with reference to the scope and to the methods used to cheat. The findings should be taken into consideration in classroom and high-stakes assessment, but also in any cross-national comparisons of students’ outcomes. Teachers, administrators and researchers ought to be aware that the differences in attitudes towards academic cheating between the nationalities may influence test validity.
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