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PozycjaA Comparison of Polygraph Examination Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Seven-position Numerical Analysis Scale and the Objective Scoring System (A Study on the Polish Population)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2010) Leśniak, Marek; Zubańska, Magdalena"Different sorts of polygraph examinations have been conducted in Poland over the last sixty years (Krzyścin, 226, 227). It is curious that there are few empirical studies which concern the accuracy of such examinations in relation to the population of Poland. Hundreds of well-documented scientific studies on the accuracy of polygraph examination have been published all over the world. However, most concentrate on the American or Israeli population, so the problem of national differences should be taken into consideration, too. "(...) PozycjaA renaissance in voice analysers as tools for detection of deception?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2009) Pietruszka, Jarosław"The current situation in the world, and especially the threat of terrorism, creates a demand for new technologies that allow observation of human psychophysiological reactions without entering into direct contact with the person and without that person’s knowledge, to evaluate the person’s honesty (deception), intentions, hidden information, and information provided. This has resulted in a revival of interest in devices and techniques for investigating emotional changes in the sound of the human voice (Widacki 2007)."(...) PozycjaAttempt at Detection of Deception Based on Records of Physiological Reactions Remotely Captured with FaceReader Software. Part 1(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Widacki, Jan; Wójcik, Bartosz; Szuba-Boroń, AnnaStrong emotions are among others manifested in the expressive movements (facial expression). Facial expressions are natural and universal by nature. They do not depend on ethnicity, culture, social status, age, etc. Nonetheless, humans are sometimes capable of controlling their facial expressions and hiding their emotions. Simulating emotions is a fundamental acting skill. However, controlling facial impressions takes time. The onset of such a control is delayed by anything from 0.25 to even 0.1 second – the period when the authentic facial expression, adequate to the emotion is demonstrated – and therefore remains imperceptible to an external observer. This short-lived facial expression observed in that short meantime is known as microexpression. FaceReader, designed by Dutch company Noldus (established and directed by Professor Lucas Noldus), is a software package for automatic recognition and analysis of facial expression. As its diagnostic value for validity as well as reliability, that is the level of correct indications, remains unknown, we decided to determine it experimentally and have chosen to run an experiment comparing its diagnostic value with that of a traditional polygraph examination. PozycjafMRI Lie Detection Validity and Admissibility as Evidence in Court and Applicability of the Court’s Ruling to Polygraph Testing(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2013) Matte, James Allan"On 18 June 2008, a federal grand jury returned an indictment against Dr. Lorne Allan Semrau, a clinical psychologist, and in a Second Superseding Indictment fi led later that year charged him with sixty counts of healthcare fraud in violation of 18 U.S.C & 1347, twelve counts of money laundering in violation of 18 U.S.C && 1956 and 1957, and one count of criminal forfeiture. After a twelve-day jury trial Dr. Semrau was convicted of three counts of healthcare fraud, and was acquitted on the remaining counts. Dr. Semrau appealed his conviction in United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, U.S. v. Semrau, 693 F.3d 510 (6th Cir. 2012)."(...) PozycjaThe deceptive human and the detection of deception(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2017) Amsel, Tuvya T. PozycjaThermal Vision as a Method of Detection of Deception: A review of experiences(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2015) Gołaszewski, Marcin; Zając, Paweł; Widacki, JanFrom introduction: "Turning pale or red in the face, besides expressive movements (mimic and pantomimic) belonged to the earliest observed symptoms of emotions, which sometimes were even directly treated as symptoms of the lie (Trovillio 1938/1939, Eysenck 1971). Th anks to experimental psychology and physiology, since the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries they have been known to result from changes in the blood supply to the face related to the functioning of the circulatory system, movement of muscles, and chemical changes in the blood and its energetic value (dependent on the amount of oxygen, catecholamines, etc.), a knowledge embracing also the fact that physiological changes accompanying emotions encompass the entire organism and are clearly correlated. Th us, theoretically, it suffi ces to observe any fragment of the organism to detect emotions, and the number of physiological correlates of emotions, if not unlimited, is certainly very large. Some of them are clearly visible for an external observer (for example, the expressive movements, blanching, blushing, tremors, etc.). Others can be observed only with specialist devices, with polygraph being the best known among them. "(...) PozycjaValue of Vontent-Based Deception Detection Methods(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2014) Dukała, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald"Literature abounds with examples of various methods serving detection of deception in testimonies. They can be divided both according to the methods used depending on the tactics of witness interrogation (Gruza, 2009) and the psychological model of analysing testimony veracity (Marten, 2012). Functioning currently is also a division of methods of detecting deception based on the channel of communication analysed (Vrij, 2008): methods based on the analysis of the so-called non-verbal and vocal detection of deception (DePaulo et al., 2003), methods based on psychophysiological analyses (polygraph, EEG, fMRI, and thermography examinations), and methods that analyse the contents of the testimony (e.g. Content Based Criteria Analysis – CBCA, Steller, Köhnken, 1989; Reality Monitoring – RM, Sporer, 2004; Aberdeen Report Judgement Scale – ARJS, Sporer, Breuer, 2009). The last set of tools seems to be most interesting for the potential of an extensive application in judiciary practice, and relative easiness and low cost of application, coupled with powerful theoretical grounds (Wojciechowski, 2012). "(...) PozycjaVerbal and Non-verbal Symptoms of Deception in the Eyes of Policemen and Psychologists(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2019) Widacki, Jan; Mirska, Natalia; Wrońska, MałgorzataThe objective of the study was to test how selected respondents (psychologists and police officers) evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms (cues) of deception listed in literature on the subject. To achieve that, 16 verbal and non-verbal (behavioural) symptoms listed in literature as most typical and most frequently accompanying deceit were ever located by 100 police officers and 101 psychologists (n=201). Their task was to group the symptoms according to the following categories: “often present”, “rarely present”, and “never present”. Both the groups of respondents claimed that in their work they have to frequently decide whether their interlocutors tell the truth or lie, and are convinced that they are capable of accurate detection of deception through their assessment of verbal and non-verbal (behavioural) symptoms accompanying lie. The latter belief is clearly refuted by the results of all known experimental studies. In fact, police officers and psychologists agreed that the most diagnostic symptom is “avoidance of eye contact” (143 respondents categorised it as oft en present). “High frequency of eye blinking” was considered least diagnostic of the symptoms, with only 47 respondents claiming that it is frequent, together with “head scratching” with 51 considering it as occurring “often”). Convergence of the respondents’ opinions was high. No significant differences between the occupational and age groups, and genders were discovered. The results of the study remain coherent with the results of studies by other authors maintaining that the skill of detecting deception in the interlocutor is determined neither by education, nor occupation, nor gender, nor the age of the person performing the detection.